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Kokunsan Mata takwas da suka yi jarumta a Yaƙin Duniya na II?

 Idan ana magana kan jarumtar zamanin yaki, wane ne ya fi jarumtaka tsakanin namiji da mace?


A mafi yawan lokutan rikici ba a cika yin la'akari da gudunmuwar mata ba, tamkar dai yadda a bana da ake bikin tunawa da cikar yakin duniya na biyu shekaru 75 a wannan shekarar.. (yakin da aka kawo karshensa ranar 15 ga Agusta).


Muna murnar tunawa da mata takwas wadanda jarumtarsu da nasarar da suka samu ta bambanta su da miliyoyin mutanen da suka nuna kwazo a rikici mafi muni.


Cheng Benhua: Macen da ke tunkarar mutuwa da murmushi

Cheng Benhua jarumar gwarzuwar yaki ce da ta yaki Japanawa bayan da suka kai mamaya kasar Sin (China).


Hoton da aka dauka - kafin a caka mata wuka ta mutu - ya nuna jajircewar rashin tsoronta.


Mai daukar hoto dan Japan ne ya dauke ta, kuma ya bibiyi karshen rayuwarta bayan da aka kama ta lokacin da take fafata yaki aka garkame ta a kurkuku


Mutanen da suka kama ta sun yi mata fyaden taron dangi amma ko gezau ba ta yi ba, har ma ta ki ba da kai.


Ta bayyana cikin murmushi yayin da take tunkarar mutuwa, ta makale hannayenta a kirji, inda ta dago kanta ta kalli na'urar daukar hoto ba tare da jin tsoro ba.


An yi butun-butumin tunawa da ita, mai tsawon mita biyar da aka kafa a Nanjing, wato wurin da ya kasance mafi munin inda aka yi kashe-kashen yaki, yayin da kimanin mutanen Sin maza da mata da kananan yara 300,000 sojojin Japan suka daddatsa su.


An yi butun-butumin tunawa da ita, mai tsawon mita biyar da aka kafa a Nanjing, wato wurin da ya kasance mafi munin inda aka yi kashe-kashen yaki, yayin da mutanen China maza da mata da kananan yara 300,000 wadanda sojojin Japan suka kashe su.


Ta mutu tana da shekaru 24 a shekarar 1938, shekara guda gabanin yakin ya afka Turai, inda bayan shekara guda da isowarsa kasar Sin.


Cheng Benhua "tana da matukar kimar mutuntakar kwarjini, inda ta yi fice, sannan ta kasance ana girmamata" a daukacin miliyoyin mutanen da suka kwanta dama, kamar yadda Masanin tarihin kasar Sin, kuma Daraktan Gidan Adana kayan tarihi, Mista Fan Jianchuan ya bayyana wa jaridar People's Daily a shekarar 2013.

Noor Inayat Khan: Gimbiyar leken asiri



Wata Ba-Indiya 'yar sarauta, kuma 'yar leken asirin Birtaniya, Noor Inayat Khan ta kasance jika ce ga sarkin Musulmi Tipu Sultan, wanda ya yi mulki a Mysore cikin karni na 18.

'Ya ce a wajen wani Malami Sufin Ba'Indiye, kuma mahaifiyarta Ba'Amurkiya ce, sannan an haife ta a birnin Moscow na kasar Rasha kuma ta yi karatu a Sorbonne da ke Paris.

Kwarewarta a harsuna ya ba ta damar samun aiki a Babban sashen ayyukan asiri na musamman na Birtaniya (SOE) - a rukunin wasu jami'an asiri da aka tura yankin Faransa da aka mamaye lokacin yaki don su dagula al'amuran rundunar Nazi (Sojan Hitler na Jamus), inda suka rika yi musu zagon kasa, tare da hadin guiwar mayakan Faransa da rundunar leken asiri.

Ta yi aikin gabatar da shirye-shiryen rediyo - a matsayin macen farko da ta tunkari irin wannan aiki mai hadari - shi ya sa ma daga lokaci zuwa lokaci ta rika sauya wuri, gudun ka da a gano inda take.

Kwatsam sai 'yan sanda Nazi suka kamata, wato Gestapo, inda suka yi mata tuhuma da azabtarwa.

Ta yi yunkurin tserewa a lokuta da dama - kai har ma akwai lokacin da ta samu kafa ta hau rufin kwano.

Bayan kowane yunkuri, sai an tsananta mata zaman kurkuku da mummunar tuhuma, amma duk haka ta jajirce ta ki bayar da muhimman bayanai ga Jamusawa, wadanda kawai sun santa ne da lakabinta na jami'ar asiri, wato Madeleine, hasali ma ba su san cewa ita Ba'Indiya ce ba.

A Satumbar 1944, Inayat Khan tare da wasu mata uku, jami'an babban sashen musamman na ayyukan sirri (SOE), aka kwashe su zuwa wani sansanin azabtarwa da ke Dachau, inda a ranar 13 ga Satumbar aka harbe su.

Saboda karfin halinta, Inayat Khan bayan mutuwarta ta samu karramawa da lambar yabo ta gicciyen Sarki George na Birtaniya (British George Cross ) da tauraruwar zinaren Faransa (French Croix de Guerre ). Ita ma tana da tulluwar tambarin tarihin tunawa da jarumtakarta, wadda aka kafa a lambunan dandalin Gordon Square Gardens da ke birnin Landan.

"Noor Inayat Khan ta ci gaba zama mai cusa karsashin zaburarwa har zuwa yau, ba wai kawai don jarumtakarta ba, sai dai saboda jajircewarta kan akidarta," a cewar Shrabani Basu, marubucin littafin Gimbiyar Leken Asiri; Rayuwar Noor Inayat Khan, kamar yadda ya bayyana wa BBC.

"Kodayake ita Sufi ce da ba ta yarda da tashin hankali ba, sai dai ta yi babbar sadaukar da kai a rayuwa saboda yaki da danniyar kama-karya."


Lyudmila Pavlichenko: Uwargida Mutuwa


Lyudmila Pavlichenko ta kasance daya daga jerin jaruman da suka kai ga nasarar kwarewa a harbin dauki daidai a tarihi, bayan da ta samu nasarar a kan rundunar sojojin Jamus , inda ta kashe 309, bayan da sojojin Nazi suka kai mamaya tarayyar Sobiyat a shekarar 1941.

Da yawa wadanda ta halaka da zafin naman harbinta abokan gaba ne gwanayen harbin dauki daidai, wadanda suka kasa kai ga gaci a 'yar burun-burun din mage da bera, inda mace mai kamar maza ta nuna gwarzantaka a mamayar kawanyar da aka yi wa Sevastapol da Odessa, har aka yi mata lakabin Uwargida mutuwa (Lady Death).

Sojan Nazi gwanayen dauki daidai sun kasa cimmata, amma duk da haka wani makami da aka harbo ya raunatata, duk da cewa ta warke, sai aka janyeta daga fagen fama, sai aka mayar da ita aikin tallafa wa mayakan tarayyar Sobiyat.

Ta zama'yar rikon zaratan sojojin Red Army, har ta kewaya duniya, inda ta gana da Shugaban kasar Amurka Franklin D. Roosevelt .

Duk da cewa an taba karramata da lambar yabon tauraron zinarin gwarazan tarayyar Sobiyat, daga bisani dai an shareta daga kundin tarihi.

"Al'amari ne mai ban mamaki ga mace jaruma mai baiwar harbin dauki daidai na musamman, ba a yin bikin tunawa da ita bayan mutuwarta," a cewar Iryna Slavinbska, mai fafutikar daidaiton jinsuna, kuma mai aikin yada labarai ta bayyana wa BBC.

"Sai dai labaran Sobiyat na zamanin yakin Duniya na Biyu ya ta'alaka ne da nunin hoton jarumin soja, wani mutum - kawai ma in an duba daukacin alamun tambarin tarihi da aka kakkafa na gwarazan yaki da butun-butumin sojan da ba a san kowane ne ba, mata ba sa cikin wadanda ake ambata a wannan labarin."

Nancy Wake: Farar gafiya


Wata kima da aka kanbama a rayuwa ta hannyoyi da dama, ita ce ta Nancy Wake wadda ta shahara da fafata fadan mutuwa tana da matukar daukar hankali da yawan kwankwadar barasa, sannan ga ta mai tsananin nuna kiyayyar adawa ga ''yan Nazi (mabiyan Hitler na Jamus).

An haifeta a kasar New Zealand, amma ta girma a kasar Austiraliya. Ta gudu daga makaranta tana da shekara 16, inda ta samu aikin jarida a kasar Faransa, kamar yadda aka ruwaito ta yi karya kan kwarewarta wajen rubutun Misirawa na zamanin da.

A can ta hadu da Bafaranshe mai masana'antu, Henri Fiocca suka yi aure, kuma tana zaune a Marseille lokacin da Jamusawa suka kawo mamaya a shekarar 1939.

Wake ta shiga rundunar mayakan Faransa, inda ta rika nuna wa sojojin sama da suka arce hanyar tsira a tsaunukan da ke tsakanin kasar Faransa da Spain, wato Pyrenees. Yayin da aka ci amanar rundunarta ta hanyar sanar da Jamusawa a shekarar 1942, Wake ta tsere zuwa kasar Birtaniya daga Spain.

Fiocca dai ya tsaya har aka kama shi, aka azabtar da shi, har 'yan Nazi suka hallaka shi. Wake kuwa ta koma kasar Faransa a jirgi ta sauka, inda ta fara aiki da babban sashen ayyukan asiri na musamman na kasar Birtaniya (SOE).

Ta shiga an fafata yake-yake da dama tare da ita - kuma ta yi ikirarin halaka Maigadi Bajamushe da hannunta a wani karonbattar. "Sun horar da dabarun karawar Judo a sashen ayyukan leken asiri, ni kuwa na yi ta gwajin horar da kaina. Sai dai wannan ne karon farko da na yi amfani da shi, inda na hambare shi har ya mutu nan take," kamar yadda ta bayyana a hirar talabijin da ta yi cikin shekarun 1990.

Bayan da aka yi asarar cukurkudaddun bayanan sakonnin sirrin rediyo, sai ta hau babur inda ta kewaya yankin abokan gaba na tsawon kilomita 500, don ta samo makwafin abin da aka rasa. A cewarta, ta yi hakan ne cikin kwanaki uku.

Ta rinka dandasa kwalliya, inda ta rinka yin soyayya da Jamusawa don tattara bayanan sirri. "Ta kan rambada hoda ta dan kurbi barasa a hanya, har ma in wuce ta gabansu (Jamnusawa) in dan kifta musu ido, tare da cewa ko za ku bincike ni ne. Kai Alllah, na kasance cikin wata irin yaudarar daukar hankali," kamar yadda ta bayyana wa Jaridar Austiraliya.

Ta isar da sakonnin kira na dab-da-dab ( ko kusa-da-kusa) lokacin yaki, amma ta yi kokarin kauce wa masu neman halakata, kamar yadda marubucin tarihinta, Peter FitzSimons ya bayyana.

Dabarunta na buya suka sanya Jamusawa ke kiranta da Farar Gafiya - kuma shi ne dai taken litattafin tarihin rayuwarta.

Wake ta samu lambobin yabon karramawa da dama bayan yaki, kuma ta mutu a ranar 7 ga Augustan 2011, tana da shekaru 98 a Landan. Ta yi wasiyar a warwatsa tokar gawarta a kasar Faransa.


Hedy Lamarr: Tauraruwar hasken bambamin Hollywood





Haifaffiyar kasar Austiraliya da ta zama tauraruwar sinima ta shahara inda tauraronta ya rinka haskakawa, har ta zama tauraruwar dandalin shirya fina-finan Hollywood tare da mazajenta na aure shida.

An haifata inda aka lakabata sunan Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler a zuri'ar wani attajirin Bayahude a Vienna, inda a aurenta na farko ta auri mai masana'antar kera makamai wanda ya rinka kyarar sana'arta ta shirin fina-finai, kuma yana yabawa yadda take tarairayar abokansa da abokan hulxarsa, wadanda suka hada da 'yan Nazi.

Lamarr ta kasa zama cikin wannan yanayi, sai kawai ta gudu, tashin farko ta tafi birnin Paris daga bisani ta koma Landan, inda ta hadu da shahararren mutum Louis B. Mayer, shugaban kamfanin shirya fina-finai na MGM Studios.

Ya ba ta aikin kwantiragi a dandalin shirya fina-finai na Hollywood, har ya fara yadata a "matsayin macen da ta fi kowacce kyau a duniya."

Nasarar da ta samu a shirin fina-finai fiye da 30 da suka shahara, amma ba ta zama gwarzuwa ba. Abin da ya sanya ta shiga wannan rukunin, shi ne, fasahar kirkirarta.

Lamarr ta kirkiro da dabarun kariyar shawo kan cukurkuda sakonni da abokan gaba ke yi, ta hanyar sauya tasha.

Rundunar sojan ruwan Amurka ba su dauki fasahar kirkirarta ba, amma wani yanki na fasalin fasahar kirkirarta ana ganin burbushinsa a tsarin fasahar sadarwa ta Bluetooth da WiFi.

Mya Yi: Mai rikon takobi da guba





Mya Yi ta fara fafutika ne kafin Japanawa su mamaye kasar Burma a yakin Duniya na Biyu.

Ta kasance jajirtacciyar mai fafutikar 'yancin kasar, inda ta rika adawa da hukumomin mulkin mallaka na Birtaniya.

Ta shiga rundunar mayaka a Yakin Duniya na Biyu, kuma kodayaushe tana rike da takobi da kwalbar guba don kare kanta.

A shekarar 1944 ta yi tafiyar kafa a daukacin kewayen yankin da ke karkashin ikon abokan gaba, har ma da tsaunukan da ke kusa da yankin Indiya da ke karkashin ikon Birtaniya, inda ta ci gaba da yakar Japanawa.

Ta rinka daure raunukanta da kyallen buje a lokacin da take tafiya, kuma ta ki yarda maza su taimaka mata su dauketa.

A Indiya ta taimaka wajen baza takardu daga saman Burma, kuma takardun na dauke da bayanan yadda Japanawa ke cutar da al'umma.

Kodayake ta yi nufin komawa kasar Burma tare da mijinta bayan da ta haifi danta na farko - ta dai samu horo a matsayin sojar saukar lema - ta bai wa wani mayaki damar maye gurbinta, sannan ta koma kasar cikin watan Oktobar 1945, bayan da yaki ya zo karshe.

Duk da haka ta ci gaba da fafutikarta, inda ta yi yakin kwatar 'yancin kai, daga bisani ta koma kan rundunar sojan kasar.

Rasuna Said: Zakanya


Rasuna Said ta kasance ta musamman a wannan rukunin, domin zamanin yaki ta yi hadin guiwa da rundunar soja, ko da a fakaice ne.

Ta kasance jigo a fafutikar 'yancin kan Indonesiya, kuma abokan gabarta ba su damfaru sosai a cikin Japanawa ba, illa dai kawai ta fi matsin lamba ga Jamusawa 'yan mulkin mallaka.

Said ta jajirce a fagen siyasa tun tana matashiyarta, har ta kafa jam'iyyar siyasa ta PERMI (Jam'iyyar Musulmin Indonesiya) - tun tana cikin shekarunta na ashirin da doriya, inda al'amuran siyasarta suka ta'allaka kan addini da 'yan kasanci.

Ta kasance mai magana da zafafan kalamai "tamkar a ranar ana fafata fada" a cewar daya daga marubutan tarihinta, kwazonta wajen sukar hukumomin Jamusawa 'yan mulkin mallaka ta sanya aka yi mata lakabin Zakanya.

Mafi yawan lokuta Jamusawan kan dakatar da jawabanta, inda sukan tsareta, har ma akwai lokacin da suka jefata kurkuku har na tsawon watanni goma sha hudu.

Lokacin da Japanawa suka mamaye tsibiran archipelago a shekarar 1942, Saida ta shiga kungiyar da ke goyon bayan Japanawa, amma ta yi amfani da su ne don ci gaba da fafutikar 'yanci.

Matsalar Indonesiya ba ta kawo karshe ba, domin ba a daina fada ba, har bayan da aka samu galaba a kan Japanawa. Jamusawa sun sake dawowa don tursasa karfin ikonsu, da farko tare da taimakon Birtaniya, sannan aka fafata mummunan fada har na tsawon shekaru hudu.

An kawo karshen takaddamar ne bayan da Jamusawan suka yarda da karfin ikon cin gashin kan Indonesiya a shekarr 1949, kuma ana tunawa da gudunmuwar Said, domin an kawata sunanta a daya daga manyan titunan babban birnin kasar Jakarta.

Ta kasance jajirtacciyar mai fafutikar daidaiton adalci a tsakanin jinsuna, da fafutikar ilimin mata, kuma Rasuna Said tana cikin mata 'yan kadan da aka jero su a rukunin Gwarazan kasa a Indonesiya.

SOURCE: BBCHAUSA

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